Match-Fixing & Corruption In Sport - An Historical Timeline

The recent breaking stories of corruption in Tennis, Cricket and the ongoing FIFA scandals have finally ensured that protecting the integrity of sport is back up the agenda for many sport organisations and governing bodies. No longer can these issues be swept under the carpet, and the likes of investigative journalists Andrew Jennings and Declan Hill cannot be ignored any more. Will things change overnight? Absolutely not. As we scribbled in our best practise guide for what stakeholders in sport can actively implement to protect their activities, there’s no immediate fix (pardon the pun!), but there is plenty that can be done to minimise the risks and improve the integrity of sport.

As part of our work, we have produced a timeline of events across multiple sports of instances where integrity of sport has been questioned and potential match-fixing and corruption has taken place. The range of sports is staggering and it would be naïve to think it does not exist somehow in every sport. Ordered by most recent at the top, here’s a comprehensive list events since the millennium.

January 2016 – Tennis – News broke ahead of the Australian Open of widespread match-fixing involving players in the top 50 over the last ten years of Tennis. Novak Djokovic revealed he was once offered money to throw a game via an intermediary in 2007 but refused to cooperate.

January 2016 – Cricket – Gulam Bodi banned for 20 years by Cricket South Africa for Ram Slam match-fixing attempts

December 2015 - Football - Multiple FIFA officials - Alleged use of bribery, fraud and money laundering to corrupt the issuing of media and marketing rights for FIFA games

December 2015 - Football - Sepp Blatter / Michel Platini - Banned both Sepp Blatter and Michel Platini for eight years from all football-related activity after being found guilty of a £1.3 million ($2 million) "disloyal payment" made to Platini in 2011. This was subsequently reduced to six years in February.

November 2015 – Horse Racing - Darren Egan: Ex-jockey banned for 12 years after corruption charge

October 2015 – Football - 5 Napalese national team players - Appeared in court charged with match-fixing

August 2015 – Tennis - Denis Pitner of Croatia, was suspended for 12 months at the start of August 2015 for regularly logging on to a betting account from which bets were placed on tennis matches.

August 2015 - Snooker - Thanawat Thirapongpaiboon - Under investigation by the WPBSA and the Gambling Commission due to unusual betting patterns.

May 2015 – Football - Police arrested more than 50 people as part of an investigation into suspected match-fixing in Italian football. Those detained include players and directors from around 30 clubs from Italy's third and fourth divisions.

May 2015 - Football – Multiple FIFA officials - Alleged use of bribery, fraud and money laundering to corrupt the issuing of media and marketing rights for FIFA games

April 2015 – Football - The 2015 Greek football scandal emerged on 6 April 2015 when prosecutor Aristidis Korreas' 173-page work was revealed. Telephone tapping operated by the National Intelligence Service of Greece since 2011 has played a significant role in the case. According to the prosecutor's conclusion, Olympiakos F.C. owner Evangelos Marinakis along with Greek Football Federation members Theodoros Kouridis, and Georgios Sarris are suspected of directing a criminal organization since 2011. The goal behind their scheme was to "absolutely control Greek football's fate by the methods of blackmailing and fraud", exploiting the self-governing status of national football federations promoted by FIFA and UEFA. Referees, judges, football directors and chairmen are also involved in the scandal. All defendants deny charges.

April 2015 – Football – Three of five former Norwegian football players were charged with match-fixing were convicted and sentenced to jail. Two of the players from the Follo football club and one from Asker were found guilty and sentenced to prison for between six and eight months. They were also fined NOK 30,000 (USD 4,000).

February 2015 – Tennis - Kirill Parfenov, an umpire from Kazakhstan, was decertified for life for contacting another official on Facebook in an attempt to manipulate the scoring of matches.

November 2014 – Tennis – 22-year-old French umpire Morgan Lamri was banned for life after being found guilty of being in breach of four unspecified articles of the Tennis Integrity Unit’s rulebook

September 2014 - Snooker - John Sutton - Sutton was found guilty by the WPBSA Disciplinary Committee of violating sections 2.1.2.1 and 2.1.3.1 of its Members Rules, in relation to match-fixing and misuse of inside information for betting purposes. Sutton received a six-year ban, which is back-dated to the beginning of his suspension on 9 February 2015 and ordered to pay £5,000 in costs

July 2014 - Football - Ibrahim Kargbo / Ibrahim Koroma / Samuel Barlay / Christian Caulker / 3 un-named referees / 7 un-named officials / Rodney Michael - Total of 15 people were indefinitely suspended by the Sierra Leone Football Association over allegations of match-fixing. The bans were lifted in March 2015.

July 2014 – Cricket – Lou Vincent – Admitted he was involved in match fixing on many occasions. The England and Wales Cricket Board imposed a lifetime ban on Vincent playing in any form of cricket, applying to sanctioned matches by the ECB, the International Cricket Council or any other national cricket federation.

June 2014 - Cricket - Mohammad Ashraful - Banned for eight years (three years suspended) by the BPL anti-corruption tribunal for his involvement in match and spot-fixing in the 2013 Bangladesh Premier League

May 2014 - Football - Presidents of Ligue 2 clubs Caen and Nîmes were amongst several arrested on suspicion of match fixing

March 2014 - Football - John Welsh / Keith Keane / Bailey Wright / David Buchanan / Ben Davies / Graham Cummins / Stephen Dawson - Arrested under suspicion of spot-fixing but subsequently released without charge

November 2013 - Football - Delroy Facey - Arrested in November 2013 on suspicion of match fixing. Was later charged over alleged match fixing. The trial began in April 2015, when he was accused of being a "middleman" for others who had already been convicted of the crime. After being found guilty later that month he was sentenced to two-and-a-half years in jail

November 2013 - Football - Sam Sodje - Investigated after he was filmed by an undercover journalist claiming to have fixed matches. He was later cleared of all allegations.

November 2013 - Football - DJ Campbell - Arrested but later cleared of all allegations

November 2013 - Football - Cristian Montaño - Arrested, and he was later sacked by club Oldham Athletic. He was later cleared of all allegations.

September 2013 - Motorsports - NASCAR Sprint Cup Series - extensive manipulation of the race results by three teams—Michael Waltrip Racing, Penske Racing, and Front Row Motorsports—in an attempt to ensure that MWR and Penske drivers would earn places in the Chase for the Sprint Cup. When the manipulation was discovered, NASCAR imposed unprecedented penalties that knocked Martin Truex, Jr., one of the intended beneficiaries, out of the Chase, and also gave Jeff Gordon, an unwitting victim of the manipulation, a 13th place in the normally 12-driver Chase.

June 2013 - Football - Ramez Dayoub - 22 Lebanese footballers were involved which led to a lifetime ban for Ramez Dayoub

May 2013 - Cricket - Sreesanth - Gave 14 runs in an over as planned in an IPL match for Rajasthan Royals against Kings XI Punjab on 9 May 2013. He was arrested on 16 May 2013 for accepting money from bookies to underperform, but was released on bail a month later.

August 2012 - Boxing - 2012 Summer Olympics - Match result was overturned and the referee was expelled from the tournament after a very controversial decision which included a boxer winning the match despite having been knocked down five times in one round, in violation of amateur boxing regulations. Azerbaijani boxer Magomed Abdulhamidov, who started the round with a two-point lead, touched the canvas six times in the final round of a bout against Satoshi Shimizu of Japan but still won a decision that included the round being scored 10–10. Referee Ishanguly Meretnyyazov from Turkmenistan waved off all the knockdowns and only gave a single warning. Shimizu and Japan protested and successfully appealed the decision. Meretnyyazov was removed from the pool of Olympic referees "with immediate effect" afterwards. According to the AIBA report of the incident, Abdulhamidov should have been given three standing eight counts and the bout scored as RSC in favour of Shimizu

January 2012 - Cricket - Mervyn Westfield - Arrested in 2010 by police investigating "match irregularities" whilst playing in for Essex. He was convicted in 2012 of conspiracy to defraud as part of a spot fixing scam and received a four-month prison sentence.

January 2012 - Snooker - Joe Jogia - Found guilty of breaching Rule 2.1.4.1, which states "It shall be a breach of these rules for a member to engage in any other conduct that is corrupt or fraudulent, or creates an actual or apparent conflict of interest for the member, or otherwise risks impairing public confidence in the integrity and/or the honest and orderly conduct of the Tour and/or any Tournament or Match." Jogia was banned for two years (spanning the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 seasons) and ordered to pay £2,000 in costs.

November 2011 - Cricket - Mohammad Amir - Bowling planned no-balls against England in August 2010. In November 2011 he was sentenced to six months in a young offender’s institution by Southwark Crown Court, England, for conspiracy to cheat at gambling and conspiracy to accept corrupt payments

November 2011 - Cricket - Mohammad Asif - Bowling planned no-balls against England in August 2010. In November 2011 he was sentenced to 12 months in prison by Southwark Crown Court, England, for conspiracy to cheat at gambling and conspiracy to accept corrupt payments

November 2011 - Cricket - Salman Butt - Orchestrating the bowling of no-balls against England in August 2010. In November 2011 he was sentenced to 2 years and 6 months in prison by Southwark Crown Court, England, for conspiracy to cheat at gambling and conspiracy to accept corrupt payments.

August 2011 - Cricket - Naved Arif - Banned for life after admitting to breaching the board's Anti-Corruption Code regarding corrupt activity in connection with the CB40 fixture between Sussex and Kent at Hove in August 2011

July 2011 – Football - As part of a major match-fixing investigation by authorities in Turkey, nearly 60 people suspected to be involved with fixing games were detained by İstanbul Police Department Organized Crime Control Bureau and then arrested by the court. The case did not come to a conclusion yet and the teams that are being accused of match-fixing are participating in the Turkish league currently

June 2011 - Football - Tampere United - Indefinitely suspended from Finnish football for accepting payments from a person known for match-fixing

April 2011 - Basketball - University of San Diego's men's basketball team - 10 individuals on charges of running a point shaving scheme affecting an as yet-undetermined number of college basketball games

September 2010 - Snooker - John Higgins - Found guilty of 'giving the impression' he would breach betting rules, and of failing to report the approach. Higgins was banned for six months, fined £75,000 and ordered to pay £10,000 in costs.

May 2010 - Cricket - Danish Kaneria - Arrested in 2010 by police investigating "match irregularities" whilst playing in for Essex, but was cleared of allegations. However, he was found guilty by an England and Wales Cricket Board disciplinary panel and banned for life, a decision which the Pakistan Cricket Board agree to abide to. Kaneria appealed the decision in 2013 but the ban was upheld.

November 2009 - Football - 17 Un Named People - German police arrested 17 people on suspicion of fixing at least 200 soccer matches in 9 countries. Among the suspected games were those from the top leagues of Austria, Bosnia, Croatia, Hungary, Slovenia, and Turkey, and games from the second highest leagues of Belgium, Germany, and Switzerland

May 2009 - American Football - 6 Former University of Toledo Athletes - Indicted on charges of conspiracy to commit sports bribery in relation to their alleged involvement in a point shaving scheme that ran from 2003 - 2006.

February 2008 / December 2008 / April 2009 - Snooker - Stephen Lee - Lee was found guilty of breaching Rule 2.9 of the WPBSA Members Rule and Regulations by accepting payment to influence the outcome of a match. The case was heard by Sports Resolutions UK from 9–11 September 2013. Lee received a twelve-year ban, which is back-dated to the beginning of his suspension on 12 October 2012 and will run until 12 October 2024. Lee also notched up £125,000 in costs awarded against him after an unsuccessful appeal.

July 2006 - Horse Racing - Kieren Fallon – The jockey and fifteen others arrested on race fixing charges. On 7 December 2007 the judge in the case ordered the jury to find Fallon not guilty on all charges.

May 2006 – Football - The scandal was uncovered in May 2006 by Italian police, implicating league champions Juventus and other major teams including AC Milan, Fiorentina, Lazio, and Reggina when a number of telephone interceptions showed a thick network of relations between team managers and referee organizations. Juventus were the champions of Serie A at the time. The teams were accused of rigging games by selecting favourable referees. A series of life bans for individuals and demotions, point deductions and stripping of titles were handed down to the clubs involved.

September 2005 - Football - Two football referees in Brazil, Edílson Pereira de Carvalho (a member of FIFA's referee staff) and Paulo José Danelon, had accepted bribes to fix matches. Soon afterwards, sport authorities ordered the replaying of 11 matches in the country's top competition, the Campeonato Brasileiro that had been worked by Edílson. Both referees have been banned for life from football and face possible criminal charges.

July 2005 - Football - Enrico Preziozi – Genoa president banned for five years after being guilty for match fixing

March 2005 - Snooker - Quinten Hann - Hann was found in breach of rule 2.8, which states "a member shall not directly or indirectly solicit, attempt to solicit or accept any payment or any form of remuneration of benefit in exchange for influencing the outcome of any game of snooker or billiards." He was banned for eight years in 2006 and fined £10,000.

January 2005 - Football - Robert Hoyzer – German football referee Hoyzer bet on and fixed several matches that he worked, including a German Cup tie. Hoyzer later admitted to the allegations

June 2004 - Football - 33 People, South Africa - Arrested on match-fixing charges. Charges against many of them were dropped.

September 2001 – Cricket – Hansie Cronje – Delhi police revealed they had a recording of a conversation between Cronje and Sanjay Chawla, a representative of an Indian betting syndicate, over match-fixing allegations. After an enquiry by the King Commission, Cronje was banned from any involvement in cricket for life. He challenged his life ban in September 2001 but on 17 October 2001, his application was dismissed.

2000 - Cricket - Saleem Malik – Given life ban in 2000 for offering bribes. First cricketer to get jailed. Overturned in 2008

2000 - Cricket - Ata-ur-Rehman - Banned in 2000 for dealings with bookmakers. Suspension lifted in 2006

2000 - Cricket - Mohammed Azharuddin - Found guilty in 2000 for associating with bookmakers and allegedly provided information to bookies and introduced Hansie Cronje to betting.

2000 - Cricket - Ajay Sharma - Found guilty in 2000 for associating with bookmakers.

2000 - Cricket - Manoj Prabhakar - In 2000 he tried to implicate Kapil Dev and others for match-fixing but it backfired as he was found guilty himself.

Please note, every effort has been made to ensure this list is as accurate as possible. Not all items imply guilt, with numerous instances outlining investigations and arrests made or suspicion circumstances being reported on in mainstream media. We take no responsibility for the accuracy of the media reports where this list was sourced.