World number 134 Dutra Silva came through three rounds of qualifying without dropping a set to book his place in the main draw at Roland-Garros for the fifth time in his career.
The Brazilian has reached four quarter-finals in 2018 to date although he mostly plies his trade in Challenger Tour events.
He has faced Djokovic once before but managed just five games in a one-sided 6-2, 6-1, 6-2 defeat at the 2012 US Open on hard courts.
Djokovic comes into the 2018 French Open carrying belief after some promising performances in recent clay court events, including a run to the semi-finals of the Rome Masters in which he lost a hard-fought game to long-term rival Rafael Nadal.
The Serb has stated recently that he is playing without pain for the first time in two years following elbow surgery in late January, with recent performances showing glimpses of his best form.
The 2016 champion reached the quarter-finals at Roland-Garros last year before succumbing to Austria's Dominic Thiem in straight sets but he will be confident of progressing further this time around.
Hopes are high in the Djokovic camp that he can go deep in the tournament and perhaps even challenge for the title in a fortnight's time. Recent performances have been hugely encouraging for the 12-time Grand Slam winner and he appears to be finally free of the injury problems which have blighted his last couple of years.
Qualifier Dutra Silva simply doesn't possess the weapons required to trouble Djokovic and a straight sets win for the Serb is in the offing.
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